Antepartum Depression between Working and Non-Working Pregnant Women in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Issue: 2022 - Volume 5 [Issue 1]
Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Sirajul Islam Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
O. Z. M. Dastagir
National Institute of Traumatology & Orthopaedic Rehabilitation (NITOR), Bangladesh.
Department of Community Medicine, Mugda Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Department of Dentistry, Dhaka Dental College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Ahmed Imtiaz *
Department of Dental Public Health, OSD, DGHS, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Dhaka for one year from January to December 2019, among working and non-working pregnant women. Data were collected by face-to-face interview and checklist, and all the statistical analyses were done by SPSS. Chi-square estimation was performed to investigate the bivariate association between depression levels and characteristics of pregnant women in this study. This study aimed to assess and compare the level of antepartum depression and its association with different background characteristics. From this study, it has been found that in non-working pregnant women there 57 % were normal or not depressed, 12.3 % mildly depressed, and 31.1 % significantly depressed. On the other hand, 67.3 % of working pregnant women were normal or not depressed, 13 % were mildly depressed, and 19.6 % were significantly depressed. The mean (±SD) age for non-working and working respondents were 25.63(±4.65) and 31.26(±5.29) years respectively. Working pregnant participants who didn’t get privileged by their colleagues from workplaces showed a significant depression status and the relationship was statistically significant (p=0.028). There was another significant association between unplanned pregnancy and depression levels of working participants (p=0.029). But no other association was found in the bivariate analysis. Non-working pregnant women were comparatively more depressed than the selected working pregnant respondents. So women's empowerment is required by expanding educational and job opportunities for a healthy mental state.
Keywords: Antepartum depression, working and non-working pregnant women
How to Cite
Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004;103(4): 698-709.
Nasreen HE, Kabir ZN, Forsell Y, Edhborg M. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a population based study in rural Bangladesh. BMC women's health. 2011;11(1):1-9.
Azad R, Fahmi R, Shrestha S, Joshi H, Hasan M, Khan A, Chowdhury M, Arifeen SE, Billah SM. Prevalence and risk factors of postpartum depression within one year after birth in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. PloS one. 2019;14(5): e0215735.
Williams A, Sarker M, Ferdous ST. Cultural Attitudes toward Postpartum Depression in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Medical anthropology. 2018;37(3):194–205.
Leka S, Jain A, World Health Organization. Health impact of psychosocial hazards at work: an overview.
Schetter CD, Tanner L. Anxiety, depression and stress in pregnancy: Implications for mothers, children, research, and practice. Current opinion in psychiatry. 2012;25(2):141.
Faisal-Cury A, Menezes PR. Prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in a private setting sample. Archives of women's mental health. 2007;10(1):25- 32.
Surkan PJ, Kennedy CE, Hurley KM, Black MM. Maternal depression and early childhood growth in developing countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011;89:607-15.
Bindt C, Appiah-Poku J, Te Bonle M, Schoppen S, Feldt T, Barkmann C, Koffi M, Baum J, Nguah SB, Tagbor H, Guo N. Antepartum depression and anxiety associated with disability in African women: Cross-sectional results from the CDS study in Ghana and cote d'Ivoire. PloS one. 2012;7(10):e48396.
Rahman A, Iqbal Z, Harrington R. Life events, social support and depression in childbirth: perspectives from a rural community in the developing world. Psychological medicine. 2003;33(7):1161-7.
Naved RT, Akhtar N. Spousal violence against women and suicidal ideation in Bangladesh. Women's health issues. 2008;18(6):442-52.
Fuggle P, Glover L, Khan F, Haydon K. Screening for postnatal depression in Bengali women: Preliminary observations from using a translated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Journal of Reproductive and Infant psychology. 2002;20(2):71-82.
Martin SL, Li Y, Casanueva C, Harris-Britt A, Kupper LL, Cloutier S. Intimate partner violence and women's depression before and during pregnancy. Violence against women. 2006;12(3):221-39.
Lobel M, M. Ibrahim S. Emotions and mental health during pregnancy and postpartum. Women's Reproductive Health. 2018;5(1):13-9.
Lovisi GM, Lopez JR, Coutinho ES, Patel V. Poverty, violence and depression during pregnancy: A survey of mothers attending a public hospital in Brazil. Psychological medicine. 2005;35(10):1485-92.
Heintz J, Kabeer N, Mahmud S. Cultural norms, economic incentives and women’s labour market behaviour: empirical insights from Bangladesh. Oxford Development Studies. 2018;46(2):266-89.
Pearson RM, Evans J, Kounali D, Lewis G, Heron J, Ramchandani PG, O’Connor TG, Stein A. Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: Risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA psychiatry. 2013;70(12):1312-9.
Stewart DE. Depression during pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011; 365(17):1605-11.