Assessment of the Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Urinary Tract Infection in Women in Port Harcourt

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A. G. Affia
E. G. Nwokah
C. A. Azike
C. K. Wachukwu


Increasing trend in unwanted pregnancy, economic factor, maternal-child and other health conditions are the rationales for fertility regulation and family planning; hence, an essential element of preventive care. However, contraception has been implicated with risk of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a cause of morbidity, mortality and great economic loss. This descriptive cross-sectional study investigated the bacteria associated with UTI in women on hormonal contraceptives in Rivers State. A total of 250 subjects grouped as contraceptive users and controls were recruited excluding those who did not consent, less than 18 years of age as well as those pregnant or on treatment for UTI using well-structured questionnaire. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed following standard microbiological methods. Estimation of the Progesterone and estradiol as done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The result obtained in this study revealed prevalence of 80% and 20% for contraceptive users and control subjects respectively. The predominant uropathogens isolated include; Esherichia coli (55.6%), Klebsiella spp (17.6%), Staphylococcus auerus (3.2%), Pseudomonas spp (2.0%) and Staphylococcus spp (1.6%). E. coli was the most prevalent and Staph Spp the least prevalent pathogen. UTI was significantly correlated with the use of contraceptives. The study therefore suggests that contraceptive users be routinely checked for urinary tract infection.

Contraceptives, hormones, urinary tract infection, bacteria

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How to Cite
Affia, A. G., Nwokah, E. G., Azike, C. A., & Wachukwu, C. K. (2019). Assessment of the Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Urinary Tract Infection in Women in Port Harcourt. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 2(1), 1-7. Retrieved from
Original Research Article