Bacterial Vaginosis Prevalence and Its Associated Risk Factors among Women at Kiambu Level-5 Hospital, Kenya

Susan Akinyi Omwono *

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Arodi Washingtone

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Molly Maundu

Department of Cytology, Kiambu Level-5 Hospital, P.O. Box 2344-00900, Kiambu, Kenya.

Josephine Nyabeta Rioki

Department of Human Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Onesmus Muia Mutuku

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a commonly experienced vaginal disorder in women.  It occurs when the beneficial lactobacillus species are replaced by anaerobic and facultative bacteria, leading to a foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Its diagnosis remains a big challenge in developing countries such as Kenya. Gram stain and Nugent scoring of the bacterial morphotypes is the recommended method of diagnosis, but is tedious to undertake and require highly skilled microscopists. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV among women at Kiambu Level-5 Hospital and to establish the risk factors associated with it. 

Methodology: The Cross-sectional study was carried out at Kiambu Level-5 hospital, department of Pathology between April 2023 and June 2023. We included 196 women between the ages 18-55 who were enrolled by convenience sampling and screened for bacterial vaginosis using Gram staining and microscopy for bacterial morphotypes.

Results: Out of the 196 participants 46 were positive for BV (23.0%) while 150 (77.0%) were negative. Yeast cells (candidiasis) was found in 23 participants (11.7%) while 1 participant (0.5%) had gonococci. Out of the risk factors analyzed, only age had a significant association with BV (P=0.03)

Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis attained in this study shows that it is a health concern among women in Kiambu, Kenya particularly those aged between 41-45 years. There is need to educate women on how to avoid BV and to empower them to recognize the signs and symptoms, in order to seek treatment.

Keywords: Bacterial vaginosis, prevalence, risk factors

How to Cite

Omwono , S. A., Washingtone, A., Maundu , M., Rioki, J. N., & Mutuku , O. M. (2023). Bacterial Vaginosis Prevalence and Its Associated Risk Factors among Women at Kiambu Level-5 Hospital, Kenya. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 6(1), 245–252. Retrieved from


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