Incidence of Genital Cancer among Women in Iraq

Maysoon Sharief *

Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics, College of Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

Nadham Kadham Mahdi

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

Mustafa Sadic Al-Ghazzawi

Al-Ahli Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Hala Nadhim Kadhim

University of Al-Watania, Thi-Qar, Iraq.

Eman Adnan Al-Kamil

Faculty of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The incidence of genital malignant diseases among Iraqi women is reviewed from 2013-2022 in various Iraqi provinces. The incidence rates are also illustrated in relation to age, site of cancer and year of registration. Incidence rate differs widely in relation to locality, age and race. The cause is not known till now but many factors have been mentioned as Iraq exposed to the Iraq-Iran war, gulf war and the usage of uranium weapon in the south part of Iraq. In addition, oil wheel fire in gulf war in south of Basrah, as well as the pollution caused by cars and generators for electricity production that expected to have an effect on the increased cancer rate in Iraq. Old age is important risk factor for cancer. Approximately half of all malignancies are detected in patients older than 65 years. The low activity of immune system with age is reflected in the increase susceptibility to disease, poor response to vaccination, auto-immune disease and other chronic diseases might have a vital role on the increased rate of malignancy. Aging also characterized by impaired normal physiological functions. All authors in Iraq has indicated the highest incidence observed in this review was ovarian and cervical cancers while the rarest was vaginal, vulvar and fallopian tube cancer. So, encouraging women for continuous medical consultation for early detection of any genital malignancies especially for patients with family history of a such diseases is indicated.

Keywords: Epidemiology, genital cancer, incidence, Iraq, women

How to Cite

Sharief , M., Mahdi , N. K., Al-Ghazzawi , M. S., Kadhim , H. N., & Al-Kamil , E. A. (2023). Incidence of Genital Cancer among Women in Iraq. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 6(1), 197–201. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Ma X, Yu H. Global burden of cancer. Yale J Biol Med. 2006;79:85-94.

Basrah Cancer Research Group. Cancer in Basrah 2005-2008. University of Basra. 2009;12-14.

Abdul-Samad AA, Al-Kamil EAS. Breast cancer and selected life style variables: Case control study. Diploma Thesis, University of Basrah; 2006.

Mahdi NK, Al-Kahazzawi MS, Al-Kamil EA. Gastro-Intestinal Cancer among Iraqi Patients. J Clin Gastroenterol Treat. 2023;9:091.

Abood AS. A study of time and space distribution of selected diseases in Basrah. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Basrah; 1999.

Al-Hassan JK. Stage at diagnosis and survival rate of breast cancer and lymphoma: A follow up study. Basrah J Surg. 2006;12:70-75.

Sekhon R, Bhatla N. Gynecological cancer update. Asian J Oncol. 2016;2(2):61-62.

Tobias J, Hochhauser D. Cancer and its management [6th Ed.], Gynaecological Cancer, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NJ, USA. 2017;2010:312.

Kulanova I, Bray F, Fadil I, et al. Profile of cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The need for action. Cancer Epid. 2015;47:125-132.

Fitzaurice C. Burden of cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean Region 2005 – 2015: Findings from the Global Burden of the disease 2015 study. Intern J public Hlth. 2015;3:1-4.

The World Health Reports. Conquering suffering enriching humanity, Geneva WHO; 1997.

Kendal WS. Dying with cancer: the influence of age comorbidity and cancer site. Cancer. 2008;112:1354-1362.

Nan-ping Weng, Pawelec G. Researches on in immunity and aging comes of age. Immunity aging. 2019;16(8):833.

Lopez-Otin C, Blasco MH, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemert G. The hallmarks of aging cell. 2013;153:1194-1217.

Ameen NS, Helmi ZR. The Characteristics Women with Cervical Cancer Referred for Radiotherapy and /or Chemotherapy. Iraqi Postgraduate Med J. 2013;12(3):321-328.

Hashim SW, Shukur RZ, Jaafer HM, AlRawaq KJ. Clinical Presentation and Risk Assessment of Ovarian Tumors in Baghdadian Women. Oncogen. 2019;2(5): 21-25.

Abdulla KNA, Abid SJ, Al-Darraji ATM. Incidence of Gynecological Cancer in Comparison to Breast after 2003 in Baghdad. Eurasian Med Res. 2022;9:161-163.

Sharief M, Al-Timimy ZT, Al-Diab JM. Female genital cancer in Basrah, Iraq between 2005-2009. Austral - Asian J Cancer. 2014;13(2):67-73.

Khoshnaw N, Mohammed HA, Dana A Abdullah DA. Patterns of Cancer in Kurdistan - Results of Eight Years Cancer Registration in Sulaymaniyah Province-Kurdistan-Iraq. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(18):8525-8531.

Al Hashimi SJM, Hyder A, Abdulla KN, Hayder A. Fawzi HA. Female Cancers: Incidence, Characteristics and Death Rate in Misan Province, Iraq. Intern J Sci Res. 2018;7(6):1843-1845.

AL-Janabi1 AHS, Naseer ZH, Hamody TA (2017) Epidemiological Study of Cancers in Iraq-Karbala from 2008 to 2015. Intern J Med Res Hlth Sci 6(1): 79-86.

Mjali A, Jawad SA, Al-Baroodi BNH. Gynecological Cancer in Middle Euphrates Region of Iraq, 2012-2020. Asian Pacific J Environ Cancer. 2020; 3(1):17-18.

Available:www.nci. Edu. Eg/…/ cancer /block all result by Elutter-cited by related articles.

Heather S, Brigitter E. Epidemology. In: Gynaecological Oncology Textbook. Paola Gehrig and Angeles secord; 2009.

Iraq cancer registry center annually statistic (1995-1997). Iraq Cancer Board – Ministry of Health; 1996.

Cancer in the Arabic world, magnitude of the problem www.nci. Cu. Edu. Eg result by Elutter,

Thamoas C, Wlerivale W. Cervical Cancer. In: Navoak`s Gynecology Textbook 13th Ed. Lippincoatt Williams; 2002.

Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistic. Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58(2):71-97.

Jonathan S, Berek A. Ovarian Cancer. In: Novak`s Gynecology Textbook 13th Ed. Lippincoatt Williams; 2002.

ICO/IARC centre, 2021 ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer. Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet. Institut Català d’Oncologia, Spain 199-203, 2021.

Rasul VH, Cheraghi MA, Behboodi Moqadam Z. Influencing factors on cervical cancer screening from the Kurdish women’s perspective: A qualitative study. J Med Life. 2015;8(2):47-54.

Al-Akeedi JM, Abd Noor NA, Alhiti MAJ. Epidemiological study of cancers among Iraqi people in Oncology Teaching Hospital in Medical City in Baghdad for 2018. Europ J Biomed Pharmaceutical Sci. 2020;7(6): 45-51.