Epidemiology of Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes (HPV) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Positive Women from Selected Hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

A. K. Onifade
O. O. Ladenika

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus genotypes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive women attending selected Government Hospitals in Ondo state, Nigeria. Questionnaires containing information about age, sex, parity, occupation, socio-demographic characteristics of the women, and exposure to factors which may influence sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were administered. Information on other signs and symptoms of STD was also obtained. This study was conducted among women ≥20 years attending the HIV or medical outpatient Clinic from selected Hospitals in Ondo State. A total of 185 cervical swab samples collected were transferred in a phosphate buffer transport medium, kept in ice pack and then transferred to the laboratory for analysis. The following analyses were carried out on the samples: DNA extraction, genotyping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and agarose gel electrophoresis, using GP5+/GP6+ primers. Of the 185 cervical swabs samples collected from HIV positive women, 128 (69.2%) had their Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) status as positive, while 57 (30.8%) had their HPV status as negative. The higher prevalence of HPV IgG recorded in this work might be related to varying sexual behaviors, social vices and cultural practice in Ondo State. Prevalence of HPV IgG antibody in HIV women in relation to age of the showed that, age group 31-40 had the highest prevalence of HPV IgG antibody 75 (58.6%). The prevalence might be due to early indulgence in sexual activities and early marriage. The prevalence of HPV antibody in relation to education of the women showed that subjects with no formal education had the highest prevalence of HPV IgG antibody 62 (48.4%). Other parameters like past history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), use of oral contraceptives, and age at first sexual experience, occupation, level of education, and marital status also contributed to the high prevalence of HPV. The HR-HPV genotypes detected include: 16, 18, 35, 45, 30, 70, 69, 52, 31, 58, 39, 33, 61, 66 and 74 This study has shown a clear indication of the presence of HPV in HIV positive women, and equally the epidemiological classification of HPV in HIV positive women, and therefore recommends that, there is the need to educate people on the importance of routine HPV screening in order to prevent infection with the disease and development of cervical cancer. Public enlightenment programmes should be organized to educate people on the risk factors associated with HPV, which would also assist women in making responsible choices as regards sexual and other social practices.

Keywords:
Prevalence, human immunodeficiency virus, papillomavirus, sexually transmitted diseases, genotypes

Article Details

How to Cite
Onifade, A. K., & Ladenika, O. O. (2020). Epidemiology of Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes (HPV) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Positive Women from Selected Hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 2(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://journalarjgo.com/index.php/ARJGO/article/view/30104
Section
Original Research Article

References

Nyasenu YT, Gbeasor-Komlanvi FA, Ehlan A, Issa SA R, Dossim S, Kolou M, Dagnra A. Prevalence and distribution of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among HIV infected women in Lomé, Togo. PloS one. 2019;14(2):e0212516.

Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Ralston ML, Jay N. Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection of the anal canal in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative homosexual men. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1998; 177(2):361-367.

Marchetti G, Comi L, Bini T, Rovati M, Bai F, Cassani B, Opocher E. HPV Infection in a cohort of HIV-positive men and women: Prevalence of oncogenic genotypes and predictors of mucosal damage at genital and oral sites. Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2013; 1-8.

Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Muñoz N, Meijer CJLM, Shah KV. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2002;55(4):244-265.

Okunade KS, Nwogu CM, Oluwole AA, Anorlu RI. Prevalence and risk factors for genital high-risk human papillomavirus infection among women attending the outpatient clinics of a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2017;28(1).

Dareng EO, Adebamowo SN, Famooto A, Olawande O, Odutola MK, Olaniyan Y, Adebamowo CA. Prevalence and incidence of genital warts and cervical Human Papilloma Virus infections in Nigerian women. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2019;19(1):27.

Aimagambetova G, Azizan A. Epidemiology of hpv infection and hpv-related cancers in Kazakhstan: a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2018;19(5):1175.

Mpunga T, Umulisa MC, Tenet V, Rugwizangoga B, Milner Jr DA, Munyanshongore C, Baussano I. Human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical and other HPV‐related anogenital cancer in Rwanda, according to HIV status. International Journal of Cancer; 2019.

Irabor GI, Akpan D, Aigbe E, Omoruyi KA, Amaechi U, Omotoso AJ, Nnoli MA. Specific human papillomavirus genotypes isolated from cervical cancer specimens in Calabar. Nigeria Journal of Cancer and Tumor International. 2018;7(1):1-11.

Li N, Franceschi S, Howell‐Jones R, Snijders PJ, Clifford GM. Human papillomavirus type distribution in 30,848 invasive cervical cancers worldwide: Variation by geographical region, histological type and year of publication. International Journal of Cancer. 2011; 128(4):927-935.

Micalessi IM, Boulet GA, Bogers JJ, Benoy IH, Depuydt CE. High throughput detection, genotyping and quantification of the human papillomavirus using real-time PCR. Clinical Chemical Laboratory Manual. 2011;50(4):655–661.

Michele K, Nishiguishi PD, Egan M, David KD, Aloysius P, Lorenzo P, Howard C, Rosenbaum E, Yael W, Desaile R, Gonzalo GG. DNA Isolation procedures: Bacterial genomic preparation techniques in molecular sytrematic and evolution. Edition. 2002;279.

Nweke IG, Banjo AAF, Abdulkareem FB. Prevalence of human papilloma virus DNA in HIV positive women in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Lagos, Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2013;3(3):400-413.

Ezechi OC, Ostergren PO, Nwaokorie FO. The burden, distribution and risk factors for cervical oncogenic human papilloma virus infection in HIV positive Nigerian women. Virology Journal. 2014;11(1):5-15.

Gage JC, Ajenifuja KO, Wentzensen NA. The age ‐specific prevalence of human papillomavirus and risk of cytologic abnormalities in rural Nigeria: Implications for screen ‐ and ‐ treat strategies. Journal of International Cancer. 2012;130(9):2111-2117.

Levi JE. Kleter B, Quint WGV, Fink MCS, Canto CLM, Matsubara R. High prevalence of Human papilloma virus (HPV) infections and high frequency of multiple HPV genotypes in human immunodeficiency virus infected women in Brazil. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2002;40(9):3341-3345.

Thomas JO, Herrero R, Omigbodun AA, Oje-Makinde K, Ajayi OI, Fawole A. Prevalence of Papillomavirus infection in Ibadan, Nigeria: A population-based study. British Journal of Cancer. 2004;90(3):638-645.

Singh DK, Anastos K, Hoover DR, Burk RD, Shi Q, Ngendahayo L. Human papilloma virus infection and cervical cytology in HIV infected and HIV uninfected Rwandan women. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;199(12):1851-1861.

Fadahunsi OO, Omoniyi-Esan GO, Banjo AAF. Prevalence of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus types in cervical smears of women attending well woman clinic in Ile Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2013;20;13-18.

Christine H, Holschneider MD. Premalignancy and malignant disorders of the uterine cervix. Obstetricand Gynecologic Diagnosis and Treatment. 2003;894-915.

Goldstein MA, Goodman A, Del Carmen MG, Wilbur DC. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 10-2009. A 23-year-old woman with an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;360(13):1337-1344.

Naucler P, Chen H, Persson K, You S, Hsieh C, Sun C, Dillner J, Chen C. Seroprevalence of Human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical cancer risk: Nested case-control study. Journal of General Virology. 2007;88:814-822.

Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A. Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV cohort study: Associations with immunodeficiency, smoking and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Journal of National Cancer Institute. 2005;97:425–432.

Menacndez C, Castellsagu AX, Renom M, Sacarlal J, Quint AL, Lioveras B, Klaustermeier J, Kornegay JR, Sigauque B, Bosch FX, Alonso PL. Prevalence and risk factors of sexually transmitted infections and cervical neoplasia in women from rural area of Southern Mozambique. Infectious Disease of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010;6:667-775.

Mesmoudi M, Boutayeb S, Mahfoud T, Rachid A, Ismail N, Glaoui M, Errihani H. Triple malignancyin a single patient including a cervical carcinoma, a basal cell carcinoma of the skin and a neuroendocrine carcinoma from an unknown primary site: A case report and review of the literature. Journal of Medical Case Report. 2011;5:462.

Tabora N, Zelaya A, Bakkers J, Melchers WJ, Ferrera A. Clamidial trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infection in female university students in Honduras. America Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2005;73(1):50-53.

Sellors JW, Karwalajtys TL, Kaczorowski J, Mahony JB, Lytwyn A, Chong S Sparrow J, Lorinez A. Incidence, clearance and predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women for the survey of HPV in Ontario Women. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2003;168(4):421-425.

Auwal IK, Aminu M, Atanda AT, Tukur J, Sarkinfada F. Prevalence and risk factors of high risk human papillomavirus infections among women attending gynaecology clinics in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2013;6(1):67-71.

Sanjose S, Quint WGV, Alemany L, Geraets DT, Klaustermeier JE, Lloveras B. Human papilloma virus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: A retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study. Lancet Oncology. 2012;11:1048-1056.